Yesterday, Justin Kestelyn from Oracle Technology Network sent me a note specifying some logistics for our OTN interview together called “Coding for Performance, with Cary Millsap.” It will take place at Oracle OpenWorld on Monday, September 20 at 11:45am Pacific Time.
One of Justin’s requests in his note was, “Topics: Please suggest 5 topics for discussion?” So, I thought for a couple of minutes about questions I’d like him to ask me, and I wrote down the first one. And then I thought to myself that I might as well write down the answer I would hope to say to this; maybe it’ll help me remember everything I want to say. Then I wrote another question, and the answer just flowed, and then another, and another. Fifteen minutes later, I had the whole thing written out.
I told Justin all this, and we agreed that it would be fun to post the whole interview here on my blog, before it ever happened. And then during the actual interview, we’ll see what actually happens. It’ll all be in Justin’s hands by then.
So, here we go. Justin Kestelyn’s interview, “Coding for Performance, with Cary Millsap.” Which hasn’t happened yet.
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Justin: Hi, Cary. Welcome to the show, etc., etc.
Cary: Hi, Justin. It’s great to be here. Thank you for having me, etc., etc.
Justin: So tell me, ... What is the most important thing to know about performance?
Cary: Performance is all about code path. There are only three ways that a program can consume your time. There’s (1) the actual execution of your program’s instructions. There’s (2) queueing delay, which is what you get when you visit a resource that’s busy serving someone else (CPU, disk, network, etc.). And there’s (3) coherency delay, which is when you await some other process’s permission to execute your next step. The code you’re running controls all three of those ways you can spend time. So understanding performance is all about understanding code, whether it’s Java or PHP or C# that you wrote, or the C code that the Oracle Database kernel developers have written for you.
Justin: Is tuning SQL or PL/SQL any different from tuning Java or PHP or C#?
Cary: The tools are a little different, but the fundamentals are exactly the same. You find out which code path in your application is consuming your time, and then you go after it. The best thing to do is figure out a way to execute that code path less often (because the fastest way to do anything is to not do it at all). The next best thing to do is try to figure out a way to make any instructions that can’t be eliminated, faster. That’s the whole trick.
Justin: You make it sound easy.
Cary: It usually is easy once you can collect the data you need to guide you. ...Once you know how to get the system to tell you where it’s spending your time. People make it hard on themselves anytime they try to use performance data that includes information about anything other than the specific user experience they’re trying to fix. Like when they try to fix the performance of some click on a web form by looking at CPU utilization data on their application server or their database server.
Another thing that makes it really hard is the design of the application. More tiers means more complexity when it comes time to diagnose performance problems. And some User Interface designs are just guaranteed to create performance problems. My presentation here called “Messed-Up Apps” is a showcase of a few of those kinds of designs. The message there is that performance is something that has to be designed into an application from the start, like any other feature. Performance is not something you can paint on at the end.
Justin: What can developers do to maximize the performance of the applications they write?
Cary: The most important thing is to remember a couple of key ideas. First, Barry Boehm showed that the cost of repairing defects increases hyperbolically, the later you find them in your development and deployment life cycle. That’s true for performance defects just like it is for functional defects. Second, what Donald Knuth wrote 40 years ago is still true today: when developers try to guess where their code is slow, they do an awful job. Even great developers, when they profile the response time of their code, they’re often surprised at where that code is spending their (or their users’) time. So, profiling early in the software development life cycle is vital.
Next, it’s important to test. Not just functional requirements, but test performance requirements, too. Finally, it’s important to realize that there’s no way that your testing can catch every performance problem that can go wrong, so it’s important to make your application code easy to diagnose and repair in production. You do that with good instrumentation so your production system managers can profile in production when they need to, just like the developers do on the development and test systems.
Justin: How do you—a developer—profile your code?
Cary: Every development language has profiling tools that go with it. They’re tools that you can point at your application when it runs to show exactly where every smidgen of response time is being consumed within that code. The first profiler I was ever aware of is the -pg flag on C compilers. You gcc -pg to compile your code, and then after you run your code, you can use gprof to profile where your time went. Java has profilers, PHP has them, Perl, C#, C++, all of them.
Even the Oracle Database has a profiling capability, but they don’t call it “profiling” (that name means something else in the Oracle documentation). The extended SQL trace data that Oracle emits when you do the right DBMS_MONITOR.SESSION_TRACE_ENABLE call is a written record of where every bit of your response time went. That’s “profiling,” in the computer science sense of the word. Those files have been the basis of my career as a performance analyst and software tools author for the past 20 years or so.
Justin: Tell us a little bit about your company, Method R. You founded it a couple of years ago?
Cary: Yes, I started a new company called Method R Corporation in April 2008. We’ve had a great time writing tools for people and performing services (teaching and consulting) to help people solve their performance problems. Our core business is building tools that help people do for themselves what we know how to do with performance. The trace data that Oracle emits is very complicated, and we have software tools that make it easy to get what you need from those trace files.
We also have an extension for SQL Developer that makes it easy to get the trace data itself, while you’re developing a new SQL- or PL/SQL-based application. We’re also working on a number of very large development projects for customers in which we’re writing complex application code that has to scale to outrageous workloads. We’re always looking for ways we can help people.
Justin: Well, that’s all the time we have today. I really enjoyed talking with you, etc., etc.
Cary: Oh, it was my pleasure. Thank you for having me, and good luck with the rest of the Show.
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...Which hasn’t happened yet. ☺
I hope you enjoyed, and I’ll look forward to seeing you at Oracle OpenWorld 2010.
I’ll be presenting “Messed-Up Apps: a study of performance antipatterns” at the ODTUG User Group Forum on Sunday at 3:00pm, and “Thinking Clearly about Performance” at the main event on Tuesday at 12:30pm. See you there!